The paramount mission of the Acton Institute is to highlight religion as the defender of liberty and as a guide to individual responsibility in a free society.
Alexis de Tocqueville Institution
The Alexis de Tocqueville Institution (AdTI) was created in 1986 to research, promote, and advocate the principles of liberalism: political equality, civil liberties, and economic freedom. AdTI is conducts research on five areas of concern to law makers: 1) education, 2) immigration, 3) national defense, 4) taxes & economic growth, and 5) deregulation.
The American Bankruptcy Institute
The American Bankruptcy Institute ;the largest multi-category, non-partisan organization dedicated to research and education on matters related to bankkruptcy. ABI was founded in 1982 to provide washington and the public with a unbiased analysis of bankruptcy issues.
American Enterprise Institute
Founded ; 1943, the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) is a sponsor of original research on government policy, our American economy, and American politics. AEI research stives to preserve and to strengthen the foundations of a free society, a competitive private enterprise sector, vital cultural and political institutions, and a vigilant inquiry, debate, and writing. The Institute is home to some of America’s most renowned economists, law scholars, political scientists, and foreign policy experts. AEI is an independent, nonpartisan organization financed by diverse tax-deductible contributions from corporations, foundations, and individuals.
ANSER Institute for Homeland Security
The ANSER Institute for Homeland Security is a non-profit public-service research organization for examining new national security challenges. Initiated and funded by ANSER’s Board of Trustees in October 1999 and formally comencing in April 2001, the Institute believes that preparing for the new challenges will require a determined, integrated effort : deterrence, prevention, preemption, crisis management, consequence management, attribution and response.
Army War College Strategic Studies Institute
The Army War College Strategic Studies Institute is U.S. Army’s strategic level think-tank. It claims a major missions to analyze political trends that affect national security policy and act as a bridge between the U.S. Army and the wider strategic community. Our studies are used by other think-tanks, military planners, policymakers, journalists, and academics around the world.
The Aspen Institute is an international, non-profit foundation dedicated to enhancing the ability of business and professional leaders to understand and act upon the major issues challenging the world community.
Atlas Economic Research Foundation
The Atlas Economic Research Foundation, founded in 1981, is a not-for-profit, tax-exempt entity that helps to create, foster, advise and support independent public policy research institutes round the world.
The Bionomics Institute is a not-for-profit educational foundation with a mission to replace the traditional, mechanistic view of the economy with economy-as-ecosystem .
British American Security Information Council
The British American Security Information Council (BASIC) A independent research organization that analyzes international security policy in Europe and North America. BASIC strives to promote public awareness of defense, disarmament, military strategy, and nuclear policies to foster a informed debate on these issues.
The Brookings Institution is a private nonprofit organization devoted to research, education, and publication in economics, government, foreign policy, and the social sciences in general.
Bureau of Governmental Research
The Bureau of Governmental Research (BGR) is a private, not-for-profit, citizen-supported research organization that is dedicated to informed public-policy making and the improvement of local governments in New Orleans . BGR also focuses on state and national issues which effect the area.
- The Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs
- An independent, nonpartisan, not-for-profit group dedicated to research and education on ethics and international affairs.
- The Carnegie Endowment
- The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was established in 1910 in Washington, D.C., with a gift from Industrialist Andrew Carnegie. As a tax-exempt operating (not grant-making) foundation, the Endowment conducts programs of research, discussion, publication, and education in international affairs and U.S. foreign policy. The Endowment publishes the magazine “Foreign Policy”.
- Cascade Policy Institute
- Our Mission: to explore voluntary, market-oriented answers for Oregon public policy questions. A not-for-profit, impartial and non-political organization.
- Cato Institute
- The mission of the Cato Institute is to increase understanding of public policies promoting the principles of limited government, free markets, individual liberty, and peace.
- Center for the American Woman and Politics
- The Center for the American Woman and Politics (CAWP) is a university-based education, research, and public service institute. Its mission is to foster greater understanding and knowledge of women’s relationships in politics and government and to enhance women’s influence and leadership in public life.
- Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
- The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities is a nonpartisan research / policy institute that offers timely analysis of government policies and programs that affect low-and moderate-income citizens. Areas of the Center’s perview include budget and tax policy, nutrition and food programs, labor market policies,housing, welfare, Medicaid, and distribution of income .
- Center for Defense Information
- Founded in 1972 to be an independent monitor of the military, the Center for Defense Information is a private, nongovernmental, research foundation. CDI seeks a realistic and cost effective military budget without excess expenditures for weapons and policies that could increase the danger of war. It supports defense by evaluating our defense needs and how to meet them without wasteful spending but still maintaining our national security.
- Center for Equal Opportunity
- The only think tank devoted exclusively to the promotion of a colorblind equal opportunity society ;with racial harmony, the Center for Equal Opportunity (CEO) has a mission of countering the divisive impact of race conscious public policies. CEO focuses on three areas : racial preferences, immigration and assimilation and multicultural education.
- Center for Law and Social Policy
- The Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP) is a national not-for-profit organization with proficiency in both law and policy affecting the poor. using education, policy research and advocacy, CLASP strives to improve the economic conditions of poor families with children and ensure access for the poor to our civil justice system.
- Center for National Policy
- The CNP is a not-for-profit, non-affiliated public policy organization, is dedicated to promoting the public interest. Since its founding in 1981, CNP has served as a forum for debate and discussion and has been a significant player in developing policy alternatives that are responsive to and serve the interests of Americans.
- Center for Policy Alternatives
- The Center for Policy Alternatives is the nation’s foremost non-for-profit, non-partisan public law and leadership development institute commited to community-based ideas that promote families and communities. CPA networks elected leaders at state levels with leaders of private and non-for-profit groups across the political spectrum, finding the common ground, new ideas and solutions that work.
- Center for Responsive Politics
- The Center for Responsive Politics is a non-partisan, not-for-profit research foundation based in D.C. Our focus?; the study of Congress and particularly the influence money has in its elections and actions. The Center conducts computerized research on campaign finance issues for the news media, academics, activists, and observers of Congress. The Center’s work is aimed at creating a more interested public and a more responsive Congress.
- Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments
- The Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments is a policy research institute established to promote innovative independent thinking on defense planning and investment strategies for the new century. CSBA research shows the link between defense strategies and budgets in fostering a more effective and efficient defense, and the need to transform the U.S. military in light of the new military situation.
- Center for Strategic and International Studies
- The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a research institution for public policy catering to policy analysis and impact. CSIS is the only institution of its kind that has on staff resident experts on all the world’s major geographical regions. It also covers key areas, such as international finance, emerging markets, U.S. domestic and economic policy related to the interests of America, and U.S. foreign policy and national security issues.
- Center for the Study of American Business
- The Center for the Study of American Business was established at Washington University in St. Louis in 1975 .Our mission?;to improve the public understanding of the American business system and to foster a policy environment in which the U.S. market economy can prosper. In the intervening years, the Center’s research has been recognized worldwide as a quality product in the “marketplace of ideas.” Its findings reach a wide audience of influential leaders in business, government, academia, and the world media.
- Center for the New West
- The Center for the New West is an independent, not-for-profit and nonpartisan institution for research on policy , education and economic development.
- Center for the Study of the Presidency
- The Center for the Study of the Presidency, a public policy research center, is a nonpolitical, not-for-profit educational corporation. Its main mission is to build better government, better citizens , and better politicians. Its paramount focus is the American presidency, and it strives to foster a discipline of learning and a body of thought related to our mission. The Center seeks to better link the business community to domestic and foreign public policy issues through leadership conferences, and to democratic institutions both domestically and abroad.
- Center for Urban Policy Research
- For more than 25 years, the Rutgers University Center for Urban Policy Research at has informed the nation with its wide spectrum of urban research. Under the watchful directorship of Norman J. Glickman, CUPR has made its name in analyses of urban poverty, economic development,community development and forecasting, housing, land use issues, environmental policy, and Geographic Information Systems. CUPR is concerned with not only academic urban research but the practical application of research results to policy design and implementation.
- Center for Women in Politics and Public Policy
- The Center for Women in Politics and Public Policy serves as a catalyst for the participation of women from diverse social, cultural, and economic backgrounds in the political life of the Commonwealth (Massachussetts) and the nation. The Center collaborates with a range of organizations, institutes, and media to promote awareness of issues involving women, politics, and policy development.
- Centre for Independent Studies
- The Centre for Independent Studies is the leading independent public policy research institute in Australia and New Zealand committed to individual liberty and choice, including freedoms of association, religion, speech and the right to property; an economy based on free and competitive markets; democratic government under the rule of law; the importance of an autonomous and free civil society.
- Claremont Institute
- The Claremont Institute seeks is to restore the principles of the American Founding to their rightful, preeminent authority in our national life. It upholds the ideas of liberty and equality. It believes there can be no freedom and justice without a limited and accountable government that respects private property, promotes stable family life and maintains secure borders and a strong defense.
- Commonwealth Club of California
- The Commonwealth Club of California is the largest and most prestigious public affairs speaking forum in the United States.
- Council on Foreign Relations
- The Council on Foreign Relations, established in 1921, is a nonprofit, nonpartisan membership organization that takes no position on issues but is dedicated to improving the understanding of international affairs and American foreign policy through the free exchange of ideas.
- The Discovery Institute
- The Discovery Institute is a center for national and international affairs based in Seattle, WA. Its programs center on the application of advanced technology to individual liberty, representative democracy, free enterprise, internationalism, and the enduring moral principles of civilized society.
- Economic Policy Institute
- Founded in 1986 by a group of economic policy experts, the Economic Policy Institute is a nonprofit, nonpartisan think tank that seeks to broaden the public debate about strategies to achieve a prosperous and fair economy.
- Economic Strategy Institute
- The Economic Strategy Institute was founded because of the concern of key U.S. industry and labor leaders regarding the erosion of America’s economic leadership, and with the hostility of media and academic commentators toward efforts to halt the slide. ESI works to set a new economic agenda by challenging the old assumptions and developing an integrated, macro/micro economic strategy to actualize the full potential of America’s rich material and human resources.
- Education Policy Institute
- The Education Policy Institute is a not-for-profit organization devoted to education,research, American policy analysis, and training from a consumer choice and market oriented perspective.
- Employee Benefit Research Institute
- Established in 1978, the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) is the only not-for-profit, nonpartisan organization devoted to in house public policy research and education on U.S. economic security and employee benefits issues. The Institute has a mission to increase the public’s, the media’s and lawmakers knowledge and understanding of employee policies and their relevance to our nation’s economy.
- Employment Policies Institute
- The Employment Policies Institute is a not-for-profit think tank dedicated to studying entry-level job issues such as the minimum wage, part-time workers, welfare to work ,immigration and illiteracy.
- Empower America
- Empower America was formed in 1993 to support the principles of economic growth, promoting freedom and democracy world-wide, and America’s cultural heritage.
- Ethics and Public Policy Center
- The Ethics and Public Policy Center was started in 1976 to enunciate and strengthen the bond between the Judeo-Christian moral tradition.The center debates domestic and foreign policy issues. Its programs include research, writing, publication, and conferences. The Center affirms the political relevance of the great Western ethical imperatives–respect for the dignity of every person, individual freedom and responsibility, justice, the rule of law, and limited government. It maintains that moral reasoning is an essential complement to empirical calculation in the shaping of public policy.
- Foreign Policy Institute – Turkey
- FPI was founded in 1974 as an independent research organization in order to study issues relating to Turkish Foreign Policy. During the past 21 years it has increased its activities to cover strategic and regional issues and international affairs.
- Fraser Institute – Canada
- The Fraser Institute was founded in 1974 to redirect public attention to the role markets play in providing for the economic and social good of Canadians.
- George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
- Founded on June 5, 1993, the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies is devoted to stabilizing and thus strengthening Post-Cold War Europe. It helps defense and foreign ministries in Europe’s democracies in developing national security organizations and new systems that reflect democratic ideals.
- Heartland Institute
- The Heartland Institute, incorporated in 1984, sponsors and promotes research on the issues faced by both state and local governments.
- Heritage Foundation
- The Heritage Foundation was established in 1973 as a nonpolitical, tax-exempt policy research institute dedicated to these principles;a free competitive enterprise, limiting government,increasing individual liberty and promoting strong national defense.
- Hoover Institution
- The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, founded in 1919, is a center for advanced study in domestic and international affairs.
- Hudson Institute
- The Hudson Institute is a private, nonprofit research organization dating from 1961. Hudson analyzes and makes recommendations for public policy [ business and government ]for executives and for the public at large. More than thirty years of work on the most important issues of the time has helped Hudson forge a viewpoint that incorporates skepticism of the conventional wisdom, optimism about problem solving, a commitment to freedom and individual responsibility, an belief in the crucial role of technology in progress, and respect for the importance of values, culture, and religion in society.
- Independence Institute
- The Independence Institute is built on the eternal values of the Declaration of Independence. Founded in 1985, Independence Institute is a non-political, non-profit public policy research organization .Our charter?;to providie timely information to citizens, government officials, and public opinion leaders.
- Independent Institute
- Through this independence, solving of issues, and clarity, the Independent Institute pushes at the boundaries of our collective research, redefines the debate on public issues, and fosters new and effective directions for government improvement.
- Institute of Economic Affairs – United Kingdom
- The Institute of Economic Affairs.A research and educational foundation that was incorporated in 1955 and began publishing regularly in 1957. It has a mission in studies of markets and there pricing systems as technical devices for reflecting preferences and allocating resources.
- The Institute for Fiscal Studies – United Kingdom
- The Institute for Fiscal Studies is one of Europe’s pre-eminent hubs of policy research. IFS aims to ford the gap between policy-makers and academics: to bring academic tests and rigour to policy discussion, and those policies relevant to academic research. It has proved to be invaluable to governments, the media and private companies in rationalizing policy issues.
- Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis
- Founded in 1976, the Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis (IFPA), Inc., is an independent and nonpolitical research and strategic planning organization that has a expertise in national security, foreign policy, political economics, and government-business relations. Building on thorough analysis, the Institute and its small-business subsidiary, National Security Planning Associates, Inc. (NSPA), provide a wide range of programs and and innovative services.
- Institute for National Strategic Studies
- The Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS) was formed in July 1984 as a interdisciplinary research institute including senior civilian and military analysts from all four Services as its staff. The Director of INSS reports through the President of the National Defense University to the Secretary of Defense, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff, and to the Commanders-in-Chief of the Unified Commands.Hence,the Institute Director sets the research agenda of the Institute to meet the agenda of the Department of Defense and there requirements.
- Institute for Policy Innovation
- The Institute for Policy Innovation (IPI) is a not-for-profit, non-political public policy “think tank” based in Lewisville, Texas and formed in 1987 to research,promote ,and develop new and non-political improvements to today’s public policy quandries.
- Institute for Socioeconomic Studies
- The Institute for Socioeconomic Studies is a not-for-profit foundation with broad research scope relating to the quality of life, poverty, urban social motivation, regeneration, and the issues of the elderly, primarily as they involve U.S. government policy. Since its start in 1974 by Dr. Leonard M. Greene, the Institute has been expounding new approaches to welfare reform, comprehensive work incentives, national health care ,and its financing, and related social policy problems.
- Institute for Women’s Policy Research
- The Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) is an independent, not-for-profit, 501(c)(3) certified, scientific research organization incorporated in D.C.,that was established in 1987 to increase the limited availability of relevant policy research on women’s lives.To inform and stimulate debate on issues of critical importance for women. Unlike most other research institutes, IWPR’s work emphasises women’s experiences at the center of each analysis.
- International Institute For Strategic Studies
- The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), founded in 1958, is an independent think tank for information and debate research, on the problems of conflict, regardless of cause, that have, or may have, an important military content. Its work alway contemplates appreciation of the various political, economic and social problems that can cause instability, as well as the factors that can promote international cooperation.
- James Madison Institute
- The James Madison Institute is a Florida nonprofit research and educational institute chartered in 1987. The guiding mission of the Institute is a profound belief in such timeless ideals as economic freedom, limiting government, federalism, traditional American values, the rule of law, and individual liberty with individual responsibility.
- Japan Information Access Project
- The Japan Information Access Project is a Washington, DC, independent, nonprofit research think tank to increase international understanding of Japanese science, technology, industry, security, and policy.
- Japan Policy Research Institute
- The Japan Policy Research Institute is a not-for-profit membership organization with a mission to promote understanding of Japan’s political economic policies and growing prominence in world affairs.
- The Levy Institute
- The Levy Institute is a not-for-profit, nonpartisan, independently endowed research organization devoted to public policy. Through economic forecasting,and scholarship it generates a viable, effective public policy response to important economic issues that profoundly affect quality of life in the U.S.and elsewhere.
- The Locke Institute
- The Locke Institute was founded in 1989 to be a independent, non-partisan research and educational organization. Philosopher and political theorist John Locke (1632-1704),was our namesake. the Institute ascribes to his theory that society is founded on natural law and that the individual is the ultimate wellspring of political sovereignty. The Institute advocates Locke’s idea that individuals are endowed with inalienable rights to life, liberty, and property.
- The Massachusetts Institute for a New Economy
- The Massachusetts Institute for a New Economy (MassINC) is an independent Mass. based think tank engaging in the public debate about the critical social ,economic issues affecting the health of Massachusetts and its citizens. MassINC starts a dialogue which will help us pursue the American Dream in Mass. — a vision of life which increases our ability to invest in family, community, sustainable education, and the quality of life.
- Milken Institute
- The Milken Institute’s mission is to explore and explain the inter dynamics of the world economic structure, conduct, and economic performance by conducting in house research in business, and finance.and economics.Our objective is a better-informed public, better public policies, improved economic outcomes, and better lives for citizens.
- National Academy of Social Insurance
- The National Academy of Social Insurance is a not-for-profit, non political organization that promotes research and education on Social Security, Unemployment Insurance, Workers’ Compensation, the correct role of government in aiding individuals with the costs of personal health care services, and related private+public programs.
- National Center for Policy Analysis
- The National Center for Policy Analysis is a not-for-profit, non-political, tax-exempt public policy research foundation which promotes free enterprise, lowering taxes, A limited government and strong national defense policies.
- National Center for Public Policy Research
- The National Center for Public Policy Research, founded in 1982, is a tax-exempt conservative action foundation. It uses research, information dissemination and grassroots educational programs to develop and show the general public the conservative perspectives on issues of national concern.
- National Center on Education and the Economy
- The National Center on Education and the Economy is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the development of a new comprehensive US system of education, employment and training.
- National Regulatory Research Institute
- The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI) was established by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) at The Ohio State University in 1976 to provide research, educational services, and technical services.these products are used by state regulatory commissions. Simply; the goals of the NRRI are accomplished through education, research,and service. To the NRRI, this means: (1) contributing to applied basic research in the large fields of utility regulation, (2) providing educational and training to the members of the regulatory community, and (3) offering technical help to the public service commissions. So to summarise, the main objective of the NRRI is to strengthen state public service commission regulation.
- The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government
- The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, the public policy research arm of the State University of New York, was established in 1982 to bring the formidable resources of the 64-campus SUNY system to fruition with public policy issues. The Institute is involved actively nationally in research and special projects on the proper role of state governments in American federalism and the finances and best practices of both state and local governments in the areas of domestic public policy.
- Nuclear Energy Institute
- The Nuclear Energy Institute is the nuclear energy industry’s Washington-based policy think tank.
- The Pacific Institute
- The Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security is an independent, not-for-profit institute created in 1987 for research and policy analysis in sustainable development, environment, and international security. Implicit in all of the Institute’s work is recognition that the looming problems of environmental degradation, poverty, and political tension and conflict are at there root interrelated.Long-term solutions must consider these problems in an interdisciplinary manner.The Pacific Institute researches the long-term nature of both problems and necessary solutions. The Institute strives to improve policy through best research and consistent dialogue with action-oriented local groups from all levels.
- Pacific Research Institute
- The Pacific Institute for Public Policy promotes the ideas of individual freedom and personal responsibility. The Institute believes these principles are best encouraged through policies that emphasize a private initiative, and limited government,and free economy . By focusing on public policy issues such as education, the law, economics,environment and social welfare, the Institute has it’s mission to foster a better understanding of the principles of a free society for leaders in academia, the media, government, and the business community.
- Political Economy Research Center
- The Political Economy Research Center (PERC) is a free market organization focusing on natural resource environmental issues. Its policy analysis covers endangered species, forestry, public lands, property rights,fisheries, parks, Superfund, water, and environmental education.research is done as well.
- Progress and Freedom Foundation
- The Progress and Freedom Foundation is a private, not-for-profit, non-partisan think tank set up to restore, renew and recreate America’s hope for its future, a future woven inextricably with the twin ideals of progress and freedom.
- Progressive Policy Institute
- The Progressive Policy Institute is a institute for policy innovations that help develop alternatives to the traditional debate between the Left and Right. PPI advocates for growth-oriented economic policies to stimulate multi class upward mobility and foster a more democratic capitalism; social policies that move beyond warehousing the poor to freeing them from poverty and dependence; and to a foreign policy of resolve to defend and promoting America’s interests abroad.
- Public Policy Institute of California
- The Public Policy Institute of California is a private, not-forprofit group dedicated to independent, apolitical research on social, and political issues in the economy, that affect Californians. The Institute was established in 1994 with an gift from William R. Hewlett.
- Public Service Research Foundation
- The Public Service Research Foundation is a research and education think tank that investigates the impact of unions in government on government itself. Since 1980 it has published a quarterly journal, the Government Union Review, which contains scholarly articles on this topic.We are proud of the quality
- Rand is a private, nonprofit institution that strives to improve public policy through research and analysis.
- Reason Foundation
- The Reason Foundation is a not-for-profit, non-affiliated policy research and educational organization dedicated to advancing the ideas of a free society.
- Resources for the Future
- Resources for the Future (RFF) is an independent, not-for-profit research organization that trys to help people make better decisions about conservation and use of mans natural resources in the environment. As the world’s understanding of the environment increases and competition for natural and financial resources becomes even more competitive, the pressing need for policies based on evidence rather than just inclination becomes crucial. RFF strives to provide this accurate, objective information to public opinion leaders,policy makers, legislators, and environmentalists to help them meet long-term environmental and economic needs.
- Henry L. Stimson Center
- The Henry L. Stimson Center was founded in 1989 and is a not-for-profit, non-affiliated institution that emphasizes very difficult national and international security and foreign policy concerns. These involve policy, technology, and politics. We deal with reducing and eliminating the weapons of mass destruction, foreign policy issues and the intracacies of U.S. commitments abroad, and confidence building measures in China and South-East Asia .
- Tax Foundation
- The Tax Foundation, commemorating its 60th anniversary in 1997, is a not-for-profit, nonpolitical policy organization that investigates fiscal issues at state,federal, and local levels.
- Twentieth Century Fund
- Since 1919, the Twentieth Century Fund, a nonpartisan organization, has been at the forefront researching and expousing progressive public policy. It publishes books, reports, and other publications .We convene task forces of citizens and experts with hopes of finding new approaches to the major issues of the day.
- W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
- The W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research was founded in 1945 to investigate and promote new solutions for employment related problems. It is a non-profit, non affiliated research institute.We have nine professional economists on staff. The Institute is proud of it’s competitive grant program that funds original research, and also publishes monographs and working papers.
- Urban Institute
- The Urban Institute is a private, nonprofit policy research and educational foundation, established in 1968, to investigate the social and economic issues facing the nation and government policies designed to fix such problems.
- World Water Council
- The World Water Councils aim is to promote awareness about critical water issues, including at the highest decision-making level, We aim to facilitate the efficient protection,planning, management development, and consumption of global water on an environmentally sustainable basis for the betterment of all people.
- Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars
- The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars is the United States’ official memorial to Woodrow Wilson,who was president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. The Center has at it’s aims, in a strictly nonpolitical fashion, to foster scholarship and promote the free exchange of views between policy makers and scholars that was envisaged by Woodrow Wilson-who was a college teacher and university president, as well as a politician and international statesman.